Courts sometimes limit the category of bystanders who can recover for NIED to the victim's "family members." Is a same-sex domestic partner a "family member" in this context?
See Gain v. Carroll Mill Co., Inc., 114 Wash.2d 254, 787 P.2d 553 (1990) (dissent).
"There is another, but separate point which requires discussion. One of the fundamental issues in this type of case is determination of the class of persons whose peril causes the mental distress. In other words, what was the relationship of the plaintiff to the victim? That question should pose no issue here because the plaintiffs were father and brother of the decedent.
If recovery is allowed, this relationship is a protected one. 3 F. Harper, F. James & O. Gray, Torts § 18.4, at 690 (2d ed.1986).
Nonetheless, the majority causes substantial confusion for future cases. The majority haphazardly refers to the relationship as involving a “family member,” a “loved one,” a “relative,” and the “victim.” The majority provides no guidance as to the legal meaning of these imprecise and unnecessary categories. I assume that the majority's loose language will, someday, require us to decide whether a pet *267 is a family member or a loved one. There is a split of authority on that one. Roman v. Carroll, 127 Ariz. 398, 621 P.2d 307 (1980) holds no; Campbell v. Animal Quarantine Station, 63 Hawaii 557, 632 P.2d 1066 (1981) holds yes."